Eco-terrorism, also called ecoterrorism or green terrorism, does not exist because the people labelled eco-terrorists are not engaged in behaviors intended to terrorize individuals. While defintions of terrorism vary, nearly all include the intention of perpetrators to elicit feelings of terror. Those who are labeled as eco-terrorists are typically engaged in acts of property destruction or freeing animal captives to educate society by drawing attention to evils. Such acts are violent protests that may be illegal acts but they are not terroristic.
Eco-terrorism is defined by the FBI as "the use or threatened use of violence of a criminal nature against innocent victims or property by an environmentally-oriented, subnational group for environmental-political reasons, or aimed at an audience beyond the target, often of a symbolic nature."  This characterization of property destruction as "violence against property" rather than as vandalism is highly contentious. Within this article, however, acts labeled eco-terrorism by law enforcement are considered, whether or not they involve violence against persons or living things.
The FBI has credited to eco-terrorism 200 million dollars in property damage from 2003 and 2008, and a majority of states within the USA have introduced laws aimed at eco-terrorism.
Application of the term Edit
The acts described by law enforcement organizations as eco-terrorism vary widely. Many involve sabotage of equipment and unmanned facilities using arson. Tree spiking, the embedding of metal spikes in trees, is sometimes described as eco-terrorism. In the case of Peter Daniel Young, the release of minks was called "animal enterprise terrorism."
Unsurprisingly, acts of civil disobedience has been labeled eco-terrorism. For example , in 2003, a Big Business lobby, the American Legislative Exchange Council (ALEC), proposed the "Animal and Ecological Terrorism Act" which defined an "animal rights or ecological terrorist organization" as "two or more persons organized for the purpose of supporting any politically motivated activity intended to obstruct or deter any person from participating in an activity involving animals or an activity involving natural resources." The legislation has not been enacted.
Eco-terrorism has also been used, rhetorically, to describe ecological destruction. Paul Watson, the founder of the Sea Shepherd Conservation Society, has presented his own definition: "an act that terrorizes other species and threatens the ecological systems of the planet". Canadian environmentalist David Suzuki described the former Prime Minister of Australia, John Howard, as an "eco-terrorist" for failing to abide by the Kyoto Protocol on climate change. Environmentalists have accused corporations ranging from ExxonMobil  and General Electric to McDonalds of eco-terrorism. Paul Watson accused Japanese Whalers of eco-terrorism, saying "They are the real eco-terrorists. They terrorise the environment."
Groups accused of ecoterrorismEdit
Organizations that have been labeled as "eco-terrorists" in the United States include the Animal Liberation Front (ALF), and the Earth Liberation Front (ELF),. The FBI in 2001 named the ELF as "one of the most active extremist elements in the United States", and a "terrorist threat," although they publicly disavow harm to humans or animals.
Ecoterrorism in fictionEdit
- Anetta by Capcom
- Antarctica by Kim Stanley Robinson
- Ark Angel, by Anthony Horowitz
- Batman & Robin
- Blue Mars by Kim Stanley Robinson
- Daisuke Hayami, aka Speedy Dave by Capcom
- Darkwing Duck's Bushroot (Walt Disney)
- Captain Planet, by Ted Turner
- CHERUB, a series of novels by Robert Muchamore, contains a fictional eco-terrorist group named Help Earth
- Concrete: Think Like a Mountain by Paul Chadwick
- Darkness Falls and Fearful Symmetry, 2 episodes of The X-Files
- The Divide by Nicholas Evans
- Devouring Earth, in City of Heroes
- Douche and Turd , Fun with Veal and Free Willzyx , 3 episodes of South Park
- Enrica Villablanca in Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Double Agent
- A Friend of the Earth by T. Coraghessan Boyle
- Final Fantasy VII - The organisation AVALANCHE launch attacks on the Shinra Company mako reactors to save the planet.
- Five Days in Babylon by P.L. Reiter Antagonist is a chic latina agent of the Earth Liberation Front
- Space Warriors in Cowboy Bebop
- Hoot by Carl Hiaasen
- Jokerman 8, by Richard Melo
- Lullaby by Chuck Palahniuk
- Make Love! The Bruce Campbell Way by Bruce Campbell
- Mengele Zoo by Gert Nygårdshaug
- Metal Gear Solid 2: Sons of Liberty by Hideo Kojima
- The Monkey Wrench Gang by Edward Abbey
- On Deadly Ground, a 1998 Film by and starring Steven Seagal
- Poison Ivy and Ra's al Ghul, foes of The Batman, from the DC Comics universe.
- Rainbow Six by Tom Clancy
- The Sheep Look Up, by John Brunner.
- Sick Puppy, by Carl Hiaasen.
- State of Fear by Michael Crichton
- Twelve Monkeys, a 1995 film starring Bruce Willis and Brad Pitt
- Zodiac by Neal Stephenson
- Informed (episode) Law & Order: Special Victims Unit Season 8
- The events of 28 Days Later are inadvertently set in motion by a group of eco-terrorists.
- The Space Merchants by Frederik Pohl and C. M. Kornbluth
- Colonel Green a villain from the past in Star Trek was described as an ecoterrorist in the Enterprise episode Demons.
- The Green Storm and the Anti-Traction League from Phillip Reeve's Mortal Engines Quartet
- List of environment topics
- List of environmental organisations
- Earth Liberation Front Press Office (ELFPO)
- North American Animal Liberation Press Office (NAALPO)
- Earth Liberation Prisoner Support Network (ELPSN)
- Animal Liberation Front Supporters Group (ALFSG)
- Green Scare
- THERMCON – FBI operation against the "Evan Mecham Eco-Terrorist International Conspiracy" (EMETIC)
- Operation Backfire – FBI operation
Except otherwise noted, these individuals have been convicted under terrorism laws for eco-terrorism.
- Tre Arrow – set fire to trucks used in tree logging.
- Rod Coronado – at a public gathering, explained how to create an arson device.
- Wiebo Ludwig – saboteur of petroleum mining.
- Jeff Luers and William Cottrell – arsonists of SUVs.
- Eric McDavid – attempted to construct a bomb in a plan to sabotage the Nimbus Dam, the U.S. Forest Service's Institute of Forest Genetics, and other targets.
- Daniel McGowan – set fire to a lumber farm.
- William C. Rodgers – accused of setting fire to the National Wildlife Research Center in Olympia, Washington.
- Darren Thurston – set fire to a horse corral at the Bureau of Land Management after releasing the horses.
- Peter Daniel Young – released mink into the wild from fur farms.
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