An agrarian society is one that is based on agriculture as its prime means for support and sustenance. The society acknowledges other means of livelihood and work habits but stresses on agriculture and farming, and was the main form of socio-economic organization for most of recorded human history.

This was the common way for Medieval European countries to gain wealth. Change in agrarian practices occurred first in England in the 18th century, with the British Agricultural Revolution, and then subsequently later spread to the rest of Europe and the United States.

Only one modern example of a national agrarian experiment exists, the tyrannical efforts of the Khmer Rouge in Cambodia from 1975 to their deposition by Vietnam in 1979. Sub-national agrarian movements include the Amish and Mennonites.

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ar:مجتمع زراعي de:Agrargesellschaft lt:Agrarinė visuomenė ru:Аграрное общество fi:Maatalousyhteiskunta